In the 1950's decade, some scholars started to look to the relationship among the different disciplines of Knowledge. In the 1920's it was already used the word "interdisciplinarity", but in another context.
In 1950's, at the same time that a "pragmatic postmodern vision" started in therms of "production of results", people that worked with Education were concerned about which kind of Education could be better for the new generation.
At that decade Jean Piaget proposed the word "Transdisciplinarity" to mean a new way to go beyond the limits of the disciplines. With these kind of studies, in a general way, appeared 3 therms: multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity.
Someone says that "Multidisciplinarity" started with Aristotle. It is partially correct, because, in true, Aristotle did not think about multidisciplinarity although created a kind of disciplinary division.
This kind of reflexion was a concern of scholars that saw that the growing division among specialties could lead to a fragmentary knowledge that could dehumanize and make the noction of whole to be lost.
Multidisciplinarity is the most common way that we use to learn: each Discipline with its own language and own method, with few "permeability" to other disciplines.
Interdisciplinarity imply in some interrelation or exchange of language and method, with more "permeability".
Transdisciplinarity works with: different levels of reality; complexity; the third included.